The student will analyze and represent weekly sales figures
using tables, bar graphs, and pie charts.
The student will draw conclusions using bar graphs and pie
Connection to Bloom’s Taxonomy
- Crayons or Colored Pencils
- The Geddes School Supply Catalog or web site
- Index Cards
- Worksheets for lesson plan 2 (see sidebar)
Explain to students that each day at school they have the option
of buying or bringing a lunch from home. Survey the class to
find out how many students will buy or eat a lunch from home on
the day of the lesson. Have students brainstorm how this
information or data can be represented other than merely stating
the facts in words or with simple numbers. Can they think of any
visual tools that can be used to show this information?
Explain to students that your survey tells you that eight
students purchased lunch today and fourteen brought a lunch.
State that visualizing this information or data would be more
interesting, and at times easier to understand rather than
simply saying it. Tables, pie charts, and bar graphs are all
useful tools for visually representing data. Often times the
more data you have, the easier it is to understand using visual
Discuss the following questions:
Where have you seen pie charts and graphs?
What type of information would be better represented in a pie
chart or graph?
What are some of the benefits of representing data in a visual
Exploring and Learning
In the Making Connections section, a survey was taken to
compare the number of students who purchased lunch verses
those who pack a lunch. Show a simple bar graph that visually
represents the two data numbers collected during the survey.
Explain that a graph can represent more than just two data
Ask students to categorize their main lunch choices into one
of the following options (or any other categories that might
be appropriate): sandwich, salad, soup, hot meal, fruit, or
yogurt. Write the information on the board. In a class of 22
- 5 had a sandwhich,
- 3 ate a salad,
- 1 had soup,
- 8 selected the hot meal,
- 3 had fruit, and
- 2 ate yogurt
Ask students to think about how this information could be
presented visually. Using class specific information gathered
from student input or data from the example above, demonstrate
how the information could be presented as a bar graph and pie
chart. Guide students through the process by using the
Lunch Survey Guided Practice Worksheet (PDF). The guided practice worksheet can be used as a
Note: The bar graph and pie chart can be
created by hand or by using any graphing software available
to students. Explain that a bar graph is constructed using
the raw data numbers collected. However, the pie chart uses
percentages created from the data. Remind students that a
percent is a ratio whose second term is 100. For example,
the ratio of 30 : 100 is 30%. More simply, percent means
parts per hundred. Follow these 5 simple steps to finding
the percentage in the lunch survey.
Finding the percentage for the category
Step 1: How many total students completed
the survey? (22)
Step 2: How many students ate a Sandwich?
Step 3: Write the result as a fraction?
Step 4: Solve the fraction using a
Step 5: Change the fraction to a percent.
(.227 x 100 = 22.7 or 23)
Using the completed Lunch Survey worksheet, ask students the
Look at the bar graph and pie chart. Which lunch choice
was the most popular today?
Which choice was the second most popular?
Which choice was the least popular today?
Do you find one visual tool easier to analyze than the
The school cafeteria manager might be very interested in
analyzing the lunches students prefer or what lunches they
purchase on a daily or weekly basis. Have students brainstorm
reasons why this information might be useful. Possible answers
might include the following:
a monthly menu can be planned based on student preferences
- the correct ingredients can be purchased in advance
the right amount of ingredients can be purchased in
- time needed to prepare the meals can be determined
Present students with the following scenario:
RG and Hannie are working at the Raymond Geddes Elementary
School Store. This week they are offering eleven items for
sale. They want to analyze their weekly sales by major
product categories: pens, erasers, pencils, mechanical
pencils and sharpeners.
Can you help RG and Hannie create a table, bar graph, and
pie chart to represent their weekly sales information?
What product categories generated the most total sales and
the least total sales in dollars?
To help complete the scenario, divide students into pairs and
provide them with a copy of the
Geddes Weekly Sales Worksheet (PDF). The worksheet provides quantity and retail price
information. It is also color coded to help student’s group
information into product categories. If time is limited,
calculate and complete the total sale column of the worksheet
for students prior to distributing the handout. Provide
students with the following instructions:
Step 1: Using calculators, calculate the
total sale for each item using the quantity provided.
Record the amounts in the column labeled “total sale.”
Calculate the total sales amount for the entire week and
record that figure in the “Total Weekly Sales” box.
Step 2: Tally by product category and
complete the table. What were the weekly total sales
figures for pens, erasers, pencils, and mechanical
pencils? Calculate sales percentages for each product
category. For example, pens represent what percentage of
the week’s total sales?
Step 3: Create a bar graph showing the
total sales for each product category.
Step 4: Create a pie chart using
percentages generated in Step 2.
Note: If you have a school store, change the quantity sold
and the retail price to meet the needs of your individual
sale and store. Or, if you are using the Geddes School
Store Kit, use this opportunity to run your school store
and record your own quantities sold. There are 11 items of
the kit used in the exercise, however, the same exercise
could be done using the complete kit.
Conclusion: Answer the following two
Which product category had the most total sales at RG and
Hannie’s school store?
Which product category had the least total sales this
Extended Learning and Practice
Provide students with a scenario that the school store manager
would like more detailed information about the sale at the
school store. Create a chart that provides detail at the
product level for each individual item. There are eleven
product items in total. Find out which individual product item
had the most total sales and the least total sales.
Create a pie chart to analyze individual categories of pens,
pencils, erasers, or mechanical pencils. For example, which
type of pen had the highest total sales for the week: the
Study Buddy Pen, 6 Color Pen, or the Twister Pen?
This lesson analyzed sales in dollars. Review the sales
information again, but analyze the quantities sold instead of
How many items were sold in total?”
What does the breakdown look like by product category?
Pens = 55 or 20% of total items
Erasers = 72 or 27% of total items
Pencils = 72 or 27% of total items
Mechanical Pencils = 69 or 26% of total items
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Kids
Zone—Create a Graph
for additional graphing activities
The lesson objectives can be assessed by evaluating students’
Geddes Weekly Sales Worksheet Key (PDF)
to assess each team’s ability to analyze and represent weekly
sales figures using tables, bar graphs, and pie charts.
Assessment of Student Progress (PDF)
to assess students’ overall abilities to meet the lessons
learning objectives which include creating visual
representations of data and drawing conclusions from tables,
bar graphs, and pie charts.
Provide each student with an index card and have them answer the
following questions on one side of the index card:
What are two new things that you have learned?
What else would you like to learn about this topic?
On the back side of the index card, instruct the students to
draw a picture of something they learned about during this
lesson. The index cards can be hole punched and held together
with a simple shower curtain ring.