Bloom's Taxonomy

Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain was completed in 1956 and was developed by a committee of educators that included Benjamin S. Bloom, Max D. Engelhart, Edward J. Furst, Walker H. Hill, and David R. Krathwohl. Bloom was actually the editor of the handbook and since his name came first it became known as Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Bloom’s cognitive domain has become the foundation for classifying learning behaviors in education. The committee classified cognitive learning outcomes into a hierarchy of six classes which are arranged from the least complex to the highest level of learning. Learning objectives can be written using Bloom’s six levels of cognitive domain in order to promote the development of critical thinking skills. The simplest behavioral skills are found in levels 1 and 2 and are considered the lower level learning skills of the taxonomy. Higher order thinking skills are required in each additional level of the taxonomy.

Level 1: Knowledge

Students recall and recognize previous information and material in a similar form to which they were learned.

Instructional Objectives:

The students will learn how to...

  • identify and examine specific facts.
  • define common terms.
  • memorize simple definitions.
  • convert basic procedures, principles, and/or methods into action.
  • describe basic concepts.

Process Verbs: alter, cite, change, collect, convert, define, describe, examine, identify, label, list, match, memorize, name, outline, pronounce, quote, read, recall, record, repeat, reproduce, retell, select, and state.

Level 2: Comprehension

Students understand the meaning and are able to comprehend, interpret or translate information and material based on past learning experiences.

Instructional Objectives:

The students will learn how to...

  • interpret charts, graphs and verbal materials.
  • translate information from one source to another.
  • justify methods, processes, and/or procedures.
  • estimate implied future consequences.
  • understand how to organize facts.
  • explain and describe learning.

Process Verbs: associate, classify, convert, describe, defend, distinguish, discuss, estimate, explain, express, extend, generalize, give, infer, order, locate, paraphrase, recognize, report, restate, review, rewrite, summarize, trace, and understand.

Level 3: Application

Students use and apply learned information, materials, and/or concepts in a new or different situation, and make use of their knowledge.

Instructional Objectives:

The students will learn how to...

  • apply and use concepts and/or principles in new situations.
  • apply and use learned laws and theories.
  • solve or compute mathematical problems.
  • construct charts and graphs.
  • demonstrate learned methods, processes, and procedures.

Process Verbs: administer, arrange, articulate, assess, apply, calculate, chart, classify, collect, compute, construct, demonstrate, develop, determine, discover, establish, experiment, illustrate, manipulate, modify, operate, practice, predict, prepare, produce, report, relate, show, solve, teach, translate, transfer, and use.

Level 4: Analysis

Students break down information, materials, and concepts into smaller parts while understanding organization structure.

Instructional Objectives:

The students will learn how to...

  • distinguish between facts and inferences.
  • recognize unstated assumptions.
  • recognize logical errors in reasoning.
  • assess the relevance of data.
  • analyze structural organization

Process Verbs: analyze, connect, correlate, debate, diagram, differentiate, discriminate, divide, focus, infer, order, outline, prioritize, select, separate, and subdivide.

Level 5: Synthesis

Students link and connect information, material, and/or concept components together to create, form, or develop something original and new.

Instructional Objectives:

The students will learn how to...

  • design an experiment.
  • link prior learning together to problem solve.
  • develop a short story, poem, play, video, or song.
  • present an organized speech.
  • devise a new classification plan.

Process Verbs: assemble, adapt, anticipate, categorize, combine, compose, create, devise, design, facilitate, generate, modify, negotiate, organize, plan, rearrange, reconstruct, reinforce, relate, reorganize, revise, rewrite, structure, summarize, validate, and write.

Level 6: Evaluation

Evaluation: Students assess and judge the value of information, materials and/or concepts based on a specific set of criteria or standards.

Instructional Objectives:

The students will learn how to...

  • assess written material for consistency.
  • judge the value of written and video works such as stories, poems, songs, and movies by using specific criteria and/or standards.
  • evaluate the relevance of conclusions based on data and research.

Process Verbs: assess, appraise, compare, contrast, conclude, confront, convince, criticize, critique, decide, defend, evaluate, grade, judge, justify, measure, persuade, rank, score, and support.