Sports tournaments are great ways to get your students excited to practice math, and few tournaments generate excitement equal to that of March Madness. Each year, schools that belong to the NCAA fight for a chance to be contenders in the ultimate basketball championship tournament. While many teams will never make it onto the bracket, it seems some teams play well enough to always be a part of the challenge. They are often the ones who produce an illusion of guaranteed wins, but if you have filled out a bracket for this year's games, you know these super teams do not always win, causing the tournament to live up to the name of March Madness. From basic addition lessons to complex activities focusing on probability, March Madness can be used to show students how math has real-world applications.

## Probability

If you have been working in your classroom with problems regarding probability, then your students understand basic ways to calculate the likelihood of an event occurring when there is a known number of possible outcomes. Surely, your students have calculated the probability of a flipped coin landing heads-up. There is a one in two chance that that will happen since only two possible outcomes exist. Dice rolls have a finite number of outcomes too. Cast a die, predict the side that will land face up, and there is a one in six chance that you will have predicted the outcome correctly. Fill out a March Madness bracket, and you will see that there is little to no chance that you will have created a perfect bracket! Your students will want to know why this is the case in a situation that will end with a team either winning or losing. For each game, it appears that there is a 50% likelihood of a team winning a game. At first glance, this appears to be valid, but upon further examination, students can see how the likelihood of an outcome occurring can be affected by several factors. First of all, unlike dice and coins, basketball teams' abilities are unequal. Especially in Round One of the tournament, winners appear to be obvious. The NCAA has assigned a rank to each. It seems evident that the number one seeds in each of the four divisions will easily beat those teams ranking at the bottom. While their season records speak for them, it is easy to forget factors that can impact the probability of them advancing to the next round.